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Massoud Barzani Fast Facts

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Massoud Barzani Fast Facts

PostAuthor: Anthea » Tue Jul 31, 2018 6:56 pm

Mahmud Barzanji first Kurd to fight for independence

Sheikh Mahmud Barzanji (1878 – October 9, 1956) was the leader of a series of Kurdish uprisings against the British Mandate of Iraq. He was sheikh of a QadiriyahSufi family of the Barzanji clan from the city of Sulaymaniyah, which is now in Iraqi Kurdistan. He was styled King of Kurdistan during several of these uprisings.

Background

After World War I, the British and other Western powers occupied parts of the Ottoman Empire. Plans made with the French in the Sykes–Picot Agreement got Britain designated as the mandate power. The British were able to form their own borders to their pleasure to gain an advantage in this region. The British had firm control of Baghdad and Basra and the regions around these cities, mostly consisted of Shiite and Sunni Arabs.

In 1921, the British appointed Faisal I the King of Iraq. It was an interesting choice because Faisal had no local connections, as he was part of the Hashemite family in Western Arabia. As events were unfolding in the southern part of Iraq, the British were also developing new policies in northern Iraq which was primarily inhabited by Kurds. The borders that the British formed had the Kurds between central Iraq (Baghdad) and the Ottoman lands of the north.

The Kurdish people of Iraq lived in the mountainous and terrain of the Mosul Vilayet. It was a difficult region to control from the British perspective because of the terrain and tribal loyalties of the Kurds. There was much conflict after the Great War, between the Ottoman government and British on how the borders should be established. The Ottomans were unhappy with the outcome of the Treaty of Sèvres, which allowed the Great War victors control over much of the former Ottoman lands, through the distribution of formerly Ottoman territory as League of Nations mandates.

In particular, the Turks felt that the Mosul Vilayet was theirs because the British had illegally conquered it after the Mudros Armistice, which had ended hostilities in the war. With the discovery of oil in northern Iraq, the British were unwilling to relinquish the Mosul Vilayet. Also, it was to the British advantage to have the Kurds play a buffer role between themselves and the Ottoman Empire. All that led to the importance of Sheikh Mahmud Barzanji.

With the Kurds in the north of the new Iraqi state and the Ottoman Empire, Britain could gain a protector shield for Iraq. The British promised the Kurds during the Great War that they would receive their own land to form a Kurdish state. However, the British did not keep their promise, which was the first of many instances the British manipulated the Kurds and lied to them.

There was mistrust on the part of the Kurds, who were left with a bad taste in their mouth. In 1919, uneasiness began to evolve in the Kurdish regions because they were unhappy with the situation the British forced upon them. The Kurds revolted a year later.

The British tried to establish a puppet government in the region and so appointed a popular leader of the region, which was how Mahmud became governor of southern Kurdistan.

Power and revolts

Mahmud was a very ambitious Kurdish national leader and promoted the idea of Kurds to control their own state and gain independence from the British. As Charles Tripp relates, the British appointed him governor of Sulaimaniah in southern Kurdistan as a way of gaining an indirect rule in this region. The British wanted this indirect rule with the popular Mahmud at the helm, which they believed would give them a face and a leader to control and calm the region.

However, with a little taste of power, Mahmud had ambitions for more for himself and for the Kurdish people. He was declared “King of Kurdistan” and claimed to be the ruler of all Kurds, but the opinion of Mahmud among Kurds was mixed because he was becoming too powerful and ambitious for some.

Mahmud hoped to create Kurdistan and initially, the British allowed Mahmud to pursue has ambitions because he was bringing the region and people together for the British to control. However, by 1920, Mahmud, to British displeasure, was using his power against the British by capturing British officials in the Kurd region and starting uprisings against the British. As historian Kevin McKierman writes, “The rebellion lasted until Mahmud was wounded in combat, which occurred on the road between Kirkuk and Sulaimaniah. Captured by British forces, he was sentenced to death but later imprisoned in a British fort in India.” Sheikh remained in India until 1922.

Return and second revolt

Mahmud Barzanji

With the exile of Sheikh in India, Turkish nationalists in the crumbling Ottoman Empire were causing a great deal of trouble in the Kurdish regions of Iraq. The Turkish nationalists, led by Mustafa Kemal, were riding high in the early 1920s after their victory against Greece and were looking to take that momentum into Iraq and take back Mosul. With the British in direct control of northern Iraq after the exile of Sheikh Mahmud, the area was becoming increasingly hostile for the British officials due to the threat from Turkey. The region was led by the Sheikh’s brother, Sheikh Qadir, who was not capable of handling the situation and was seen by the British as an unstable and unreliable leader.

Sir Percy Cox, a British military official and administrator to the Middle East especially Iraq, and Winston Churchill, a British politician, were at odds on whether to release the Sheikh from his exile and bring him back to reign in northern Iraq. That would allow the British to have better control over the hostile but important region. Cox argued that the British could gain authority in a region they recently evacuated, and the Sheikh was the only hope of gaining back a stable region. Cox was aware of the dangers of bringing back the Sheikh, but he was also aware that one of the main reasons for the unrest in the region was the growing perception that the earlier promises of autonomy would be abandoned and the British would bring the Kurdish people under direct rule of the Arab government in Baghdad. The Kurdish dream of an independent state was growing less likely which caused conflict in the region. Bringing the Sheikh back was their only chance of a peaceful Iraqi state in the region and against Turkey.

Cox agreed to bring back Sheikh and name him governor of southern Kurdistan. On December 20, 1922, Cox also agreed on a joint Anglo-Iraqi declaration that would allow a Kurdish government if they were able to form a constitution and agree on boundaries. Cox knew with the instability in the region and the fact that there were many Kurdish groups it would be nearly impossible for them to come to a solution.

Upon his return, Mahmud proceeded to pronounce himself King of the Kingdom of Kurdistan. Sheikh rejected the deal with the British and began working in alliance with the Turks against the British. Cox realized the situation and in 1923, he denied the Kurds any say in the government and withdrew his offer of their own independent state. The Sheikh was the king until 1924 and was involved in uprisings against the British until 1932, when the Royal Air Force and British-trained Iraqis were able to capture the Sheikh again and exile him to southern Iraq.

Death and legacy

Sheikh sued for peace and was exiled in southern Iraq in May 1932 and was able to return to his family village in 1941 where he remained the rest of his years. He ultimately died in 1956 in his family. He is still remembered today with displays of him around Iraqi Kurdistan and especially Sulaimaniah. He is a hero to the Kurd people to this day, as he is thought of as a brave leader against the British Mandate in Iraq who fought for the independence and respect of his people. He is regarded as a pioneer for many future Kurd leaders.

http://historyofkurd.com/english/2017/0 ... -barzanji/
Last edited by Anthea on Tue Aug 14, 2018 12:54 am, edited 3 times in total.
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Massoud Barzani Fast Facts

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Re: Mahmud Barzanji first Kurd to fight for independence

PostAuthor: Anthea » Tue Jul 31, 2018 7:11 pm

Churchill was particularly keen on chemical weapons, suggesting they be used "against recalcitrant Arabs as an experiment".

He dismissed objections as "unreasonable". "I am strongly in favour of using poisoned gas against uncivilised tribes _ [to] spread a lively terror _" In today's terms, "the Arab" needed to be shocked and awed. A good gassing might well do the job. Conventional raids, however, proved to be an effective deterrent.

They brought Sheikh Mahmoud, the most persistent of Kurdish rebels, to heel, at little cost. Writing in 1921, Wing Commander J A Chamier suggested that the best way to demoralise local people was to concentrate bombing on the "most inaccessible village of the most prominent tribe which it is desired to punish.

All available aircraft must be collected the attack with bombs and machine guns must be relentless and unremitting and carried on continuously by day and night, on houses, inhabitants, crops and cattle." "The Arab and Kurd now know", reported Squadron Leader Harris after several such raids, "what real bombing means within 45 minutes a full-sized village can be practically wiped out, and a third of its inhabitants killed or injured, by four or five machines which offer them no real target, no opportunity for glory as warriors, no effective means of escape."

In his memoir of the crushing of the 1920 Iraqi uprising, Lieutenant-General Sir Aylmer L Haldane, quotes his own orders for the punishment of any Iraqi found in possession of weapons "with the utmost severity": "The village where he resides will be destroyed _ pressure will be brought on the inhabitants by cutting off water power the area being cleared of the necessaries of life". He added the warning: "Burning a village properly takes a long time, an hour or more according to size".

https://youtu.be/nx-QgSa6cLA
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Re: Sheikh Barzanji the first Kurd to fight for independence

PostAuthor: Anthea » Thu Aug 02, 2018 6:27 pm

Throughout history Kurds have been fighting for independence

It is only recently and disgustingly shameful, that certain Kurdish leaders have betrayed all those who fought and died for independence, and decided Kurds should become brothers with barbaric Turks X(

These people are TRAITORS

They are only interested in their own self-aggrandisement as seen by the actions of Selahattin Demirtas, who was extremely happy to be be receiving all the publicity and public acclaim.

Selahattin Demirtas got carried away by publicly supporting Ocalan and the PKK, putting fellow HDP MPs at risk

When arrested Selahattin Demirtas changed his technique and decided on a more brotherly approach

As that approach did not work particularly well Demirtas decided to opt out of politics completely

That was until someone decided Selahattin Demirtas should stand for president

Selahattin Demirtas heard the call for glory and publicity and decided to return to the political arena X(

KURDS need leaders who will put KURDS and KURDISTAN first
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Re: Sheikh Barzanji the first Kurd to fight for independence

PostAuthor: Anthea » Sun Aug 05, 2018 9:09 am

Barzanis have always been at the forefront of struggle for independence

Ahmed Barzani revolt refers to the first of the major Barzani revolts and the third Kurdish nationalistic insurrection in modern Iraq. The revolt began in 1931, after Ahmed Barzani, one of the most prominent Kurdish leaders in southern Kurdistan, succeeded in unifying a number of other Kurdish tribes. The ambitious Kurdish leader enlisted a number of Kurdish leaders into the revolt, including his young brother Mustafa Barzani, who became one of the most notorious commanders during this revolt. The Barzani forces were eventually overpowered by the Iraqi Army with British support, forcing the leaders of Barzan to go underground.

Ahmed Barzani was later forced to flee to Turkey, where he was held in detention and then sent to exile in the south of Iraq. Although initially a tribal dispute, the involvement of the Iraqi government inadvertently led to the growth of Shaykh Ahmed and Mulla Mustafa Barzani as prominent Kurdish leaders. Throughout these early conflicts the Barzanis consistently displayed their leadership and military prowess, providing steady opposition to the fledgling Iraqi military. It is speculated that exile in the major cities exposed the Barzanis to the ideas of urban Kurdish nationalism.
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Re: Sheikh Barzanji the first Kurd to fight for independence

PostAuthor: Anthea » Tue Aug 14, 2018 12:51 am

Massoud Barzani Fast Facts

Here is a look at the life of Massoud Barzani, the former president of the Kurdish Regional Government in Iraq.

Personal:Birth date: August 16, 1946

Birth place: Mahabad, Kurdistan, Iran

Birth name: Massoud Barzani

Father: General Mustafa Barzani, was chief of the military of the Kurdish Republic of Mahabad

Mother: Hamayil Khan

Marriage: Married (name unavailable publicly)

Children: Eight children

Religion: Sunni Muslim

Other Facts:Fluent in Kurmanji (Kurdish), Arabic, Farsi (Persian) and English.

Leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) since 1979.

The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) has an estimated 10,000 fighters and controls the northwestern part of Iraqi Kurdistan along the border of Syria, Turkey and Iran.

Barzani was born on the same day that the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) was founded in 1946.

Timeline:1962 - Quits school to join the Peshmerga (Kurdish fighters).

1961-1975 - The Kurds fight the Iraqi government.

1970 - Is a member of the Kurdish delegation in talks with the government in Baghdad. Becomes a member of the KDP leadership.

1976 - The KDP is reorganized.

1979 - Escapes an assassination attempt in Vienna, Austria.

1979 - Elected president of the KDP after the death of his father.

1994 - The Kurds in northern Iraq are divided into eastern and western political factions. Barzani is named the head of the northwestern region as head of the KDP. A parallel government is established in the east under the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK).

1994-1998 - Barzani leads a war against the PUK. A peace agreement is reached in August 1998.

October 4, 2002 - Barzani and Jalal Talabani, leader of the PUK, apologize to the families of the victims of their internal war.

2003 - Becomes a member of the Iraqi Governing Council following the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime.

January 30, 2005 - Barzani is one of approximately 7,700 candidates in Iraq's first free elections in over 50 years.

June 2005 - Elected president of the Kurdish Regional Government in Iraq.

July 25, 2009 - Re-elected president of the Kurdish Regional Government in Iraq with 71% of the vote.

July 2013 - The Kurdish parliament votes to extend Barzani's presidential term an additional two years.

June 23, 2014 - In an exclusive interview with CNN's Christiane Amanpour, Barzani gives his strongest-ever indication that his region, Iraqi Kurdistan, would seek formal independence from the rest of Iraq.

June 2014 - Nechirvan Barzani is appointed Prime Minister of the Kurdistan Regional Government's cabinet.

June 27, 2014 - Announces that the oil-rich city of Kirkuk, and other disputed areas in Northern Iraq, are henceforth part of the Kurdish autonomous region, after the Iraqi central government fails to hold a long-awaited referendum.

December 11, 2016 - US Secretary of Defense Ash Carter makes a surprise visit to a military airfield near Mosul to discuss the next steps in the fight against ISIS with Barzani and Iraqi Prime Minister Haider Al-Abadi.

September 25, 2017 - Iraqi Kurds cast their vote in a controversial referendum to achieve independence from Iraq. Barzani was the key orchestrator in the quest for the complete Kurdish autonomy.

October 29, 2017 - Barzani announces he will step down as president of Iraq's semi-autonomous Kurdish region on November 1, due to the political backlash from the failed Kurdish independence referendum. Barzani remains head of the Kurdistan Democratic Party.

TM & © 2018 Cable News Network, Inc., a Time Warner Company. All rights reserved.
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