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Kashmir still struggling for independence

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Kashmir still struggling for independence

PostAuthor: Anthea » Thu Jul 27, 2017 12:02 pm

Partition 70 years on: The turmoil, trauma - and legacy

As India and Pakistan celebrate 70 years of independence, Andrew Whitehead looks at the lasting legacy of the Partition of British India, and the turmoil and trauma which marred the birth of the two nations.

It's about 700km (430 miles) from Delhi to Islamabad - less than the distance between London and Geneva. A short hop in aviation terms.

But you can't fly non-stop from the Indian capital to the Pakistani capital. There are no direct flights at all. It is only one of the legacies of seven decades of mutual suspicion and tension.

Take another example: cricket.

India and Pakistan played each other a few weeks ago in the final of the Champions' Trophy. Both countries are cricket crazy.

Partition of India in August 1947

    Perhaps the biggest movement of people in history, outside war and famine.

    Two newly-independent states were created - India and Pakistan.

    About 12 million people became refugees. Between half a million and a million people were killed in religious violence.

    Tens of thousands of women were abducted.

    This article is the first in a BBC series looking at Partition 70 years on.

However, the game was played not in South Asia, but in London. India and Pakistan don't play cricket in each other's countries any more, although they have met in one-day matches around the world, including in countries in their region like Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

But it is almost 10 years since they faced each other on South Asian soil in a Test match. Despite a lot of shared culture and history, they are not simply rivals, but more like enemies.

In the 70 years since India and Pakistan gained independence, they have fought three wars. Some would say four, although when their armies last fought in 1999, there was no formal declaration of war.

The simmering tension between India and Pakistan is one of the world's most enduring geopolitical fault lines. It has prompted both countries to develop their own nuclear weapons.

So the uneasy stand-off is much more than a regional dispute: it is fraught with wider danger.

Image
Indian nationalist leader Jawaharlal Nehru (l), Viceroy of India Lord Louis Mountbatten (c) and the president of the All-India Muslim League Muhammad Ali Jinnah (r) discuss Partition in 1947

India and Pakistan gained their independence at the same moment. British rule over India, by far its biggest colony, ended on 15 August 1947.

After months of political deadlock, Britain agreed to divide the country in two.

A separate and mainly Muslim nation, Pakistan, was created to meet concerns that the large Muslim minority would be at a disadvantage in Hindu-majority India.

This involved partitioning two of India's biggest provinces, Punjab and Bengal. The details of where the new international boundary would lie were made public only two days after independence.

Image

Partition triggered one of the great calamities of the modern era, perhaps the biggest movement of people - outside war and famine - that the world has ever seen.

No one knows the precise numbers, but about 12 million people became refugees as they sought desperately to move from one newly independent nation to another.

Amid a terrible slaughter in which all main communities were both aggressors and victims, somewhere between half a million and a million people were killed.

Tens of thousands of women were abducted, usually by men of a different religion.

In Punjab in particular, where Hindus, Muslims and Sikhs had lived together for generations and spoke the same language, a stark segregation was brought about as Muslims headed west to Pakistan and Hindus and Sikhs fled east to India.

Image
Amritsar saw violent clashes in March 1947 between the city's Muslims, who wanted to be part of Pakistan, and its Sikh and Hindu population, who wanted to stay in India

This was not a civil war with battle lines and rival armies - but nor was it simply spontaneous violence.

On all sides, local militias and armed gangs planned how to inflict the greatest harm on those they had come to see as their enemies.

Image
An estimated 2,000 were killed, and more than 4,000 injured in communal riots ahead of Partition in Kolkata (Calcutta) in 1946

Those wounds have been left to fester. No one has been held to account - there's been no reconciliation process - and for a long time, the full story of what happened has been smothered in silence.

Literature and cinema found ways of representing the horror of what happened. Historians initially focused on the politics of Partition. It took them much longer to turn their attention to the lived experience of this profound rupture.

Big oral history projects have got under way only in the last few years, as the number of survivors dwindles. There are no towering memorials to the Partition dead.

The first museum devoted to Partition opened in 2016 in Amritsar in Indian Punjab.

Partition poisoned relations between India and Pakistan, and has shaped - many would say distorted - the geopolitics of South Asia as a whole.

Pakistan initially consisted of two wings 2,000km (1,240 miles) apart, but in 1971, East Pakistan gained its independence, with Indian military support. Another new nation, Bangladesh, was born.

Image
India and Pakistan have fought two wars over the Muslim-majority Kashmir, which both claim in full but control in part

India and Pakistan have fought two wars over the Muslim-majority Kashmir, which both claim in full but control in part

India also accuses Pakistan of supporting militant organisations which have carried out terrorist-style attacks in Indian cities. Pakistan says India colludes with breakaway movements in areas such as Balochistan.

The political leaders of the two countries have met from time to time. There have been occasional hopes of a breakthrough in relations but, at the moment, relations are distinctly frosty.

The consequences have been far-reaching.

India has much more trade with countries such as Nigeria, Belgium or South Africa than with its neighbour to the west.

Although India's phenomenally successful Hindi-language film industry - known as Bollywood - is hugely popular in Pakistan, and Pakistan's TV soaps are eagerly watched in India, cultural links are fragile.

When tensions rise, which they do regularly, every aspect of relations suffers.

Image
After a backlash against his film Ae Dil Hai Mushkil (Difficulties of the heart), Indian director Karan Johar pledged not to use Pakistani actors

Just a few months ago, one of India's leading film directors Karan Johar felt obliged to promise that he would never again cast a Pakistani actor in one of his movies.

The two countries are not well informed about what is happening on the other side of the border. No major Indian or Pakistani news organisation currently has a correspondent in the other country's capital.

For both Indians and Pakistanis, travelling to the other country is not easy - even if it is to visit family.

It is not the difficulty of getting a visa or the lack of direct flights between the two capital cities. There are very few air links between the two countries at all.

Image
The elaborate daily closing ceremony at the India-Pakistan Wagah border crossing near Amritsar attracts many spectators on both sides

Despite a lengthy shared border, India and Pakistan have hardly any border crossings.

In Pakistan, the army and its intelligence wing are by far the most powerful institutions - and the country has had repeated spells of military rule.

The abiding sense of a military threat from its much larger neighbour has - many feel - boosted the power of the armed forces and hindered the development of a mature democracy.

Pakistan has a population of about 200 million - mostly Muslims. India has almost 1,300 million citizens and about one in seven follow Islam. There are almost as many Indian Muslims as Pakistani Muslims.

One projection suggests that by 2050, India will overtake Indonesia to become the country with the world's biggest Muslim population. But Muslims are under-represented in India's parliament and many other areas of public life.

Some observers believe the perception - however unfair - that Indian Muslims sympathise with Pakistan has fed prejudice and discrimination.

The pride that almost all Indians and Pakistanis feel about their nation is self-evident. Patriotism is a powerful force in both countries.

It is on public display every time they play each other at cricket. But both have been unable to overcome the legacy of the tragedy which accompanied what should have been their finest moment 70 years ago.

And the result of their most recent tussle on the cricket pitch? Well, for the record, Pakistan won a surprise - and emphatic - victory.

Some in India were gracious in defeat. But on social media, and some sections of India's news media, there was anger and anguish - losing face to your old rival remains, for many, almost too painful to endure.

About this piece

This analysis was commissioned by the BBC from an expert working for an outside organisation.

Dr Andrew Whitehead is a former BBC India correspondent. He is the author of a book about Kashmir in 1947 and is currently honorary professor at the University of Nottingham.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-40643413

NOTE: Academics from both the Indian and Pakistan communities state that well over MILLION people died in the fighting following the separation :shock:

As we all know both the people of Kashmir and those of Balochistan still fight for their independence :((
Last edited by Anthea on Sat Jul 14, 2018 9:06 pm, edited 2 times in total.
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Kashmir still struggling for independence

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Re: Indian 70 years after Britian divided the once great nat

PostAuthor: Piling » Fri Jul 28, 2017 4:14 am

The split India/Pakistan is not a good advertisement for islam, because if you ask to most of foreigners in which part they would chose to live if they were oblige, I guess that India would be the great winner.
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Re: Indian 70 years after Britain divided the once great nat

PostAuthor: Anthea » Sat Jul 14, 2018 9:05 pm

Hundreds at Kashmir independence rally in Birmingham

Campaigners have called for Kashmiri independence in Birmingham City Centre

The protesters gathered in Victoria Square on Saturday to call for an end to the Indian occupation of the province.

Bright green and yellow Kashmir flags were waved high, while placards highlighted alleged human rights abuses in Kashmir for the rally organised by Balsall Heath based campaign group the Jammu Kashmir Liberation Council (JKLC).

It holds protests on or about July 13 every year, known as Kashmir Martyrs' Day, to mark the anniversary of the deaths of 22 Kashmiris died in an uprising in 1931. Similar protests are held across the world.

Campaigners also commemorate the deaths of other independence fighters.

Many people joined the Birmingham protest where calls of 'What do we want? Freedom' and 'Foreign forces out, out'.

Protest organiser Najib Afsar, of the JKLC, said: "To this day over 600,000 Kashmiris have been martyred and today we commemorate and pay tribute for their sacrifice.

"We want the demilitarisation, and reunification of Kashmiri and for the people to be allowed to decide whether they want to be sovereign or remain with India or Pakistan.

"There are killings in Kashmir and it all falls on deaf ears."

He defended the right of Kashmiris to take part in an armed struggle against the Indian occupation and said they are not terrorists as they do not export their violence to other parts of the world.

"There is a wholesale massacre taking place, the people have no choice."

He called on the British Government and other world Governments to intervene to protect people from human rights abuses as they had in Syria and Iraq.

Conflict in Kashmir

Kashmir sits between India and Pakistan. Both countries own portions of the region but have fought wars to gain complete control.

It has a population of about 20 million. About 100,000 Kashmiris and their descendants live in Birmingham.

In 1948 the struggle for self-determination was supported by United Nations resolution. But the resolution has never been implemented X(

The disputed part of Kashmir has been under Indian rule, or occupation, and the scene of conflict and human rights atrocities for 70 years despite the UN resolution and many others around the world backing the right of the population to a vote to determine their own future.

Campaigners regard the occupation by India as illegal and say the population have been subjected to large scale human rights abuses.

Indian authorities have claimed this is false propaganda and branded those involved in the armed struggle as terrorists.

There are many Kashmiri independence groups, such as Hizbul Majahidden, which are regarded as either freedom fighters or terrorists depending on views of the conflict.

Last year in Parliament MPs of all parties called for the people of Kashmir to be given a vote on independence in answer to an upsurge of violence in the region. Birmingham councillors made a similar call in 2016 .

https://www.birminghammail.co.uk/news/m ... s-14909179

I have always said that Kurds should work with the Kashmiri instead of loony left wing and Marxist groups :ymdevil:
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Re: Kashmir still struggling for independence

PostAuthor: Anthea » Thu Feb 14, 2019 5:48 pm

Kashmir attack:
Bomb kills 40 soldiers in military convoy

At least 40 Indian paramilitary soldiers have been killed in a bomb attack by militants on their convoy in Indian-administered Kashmir

Click Image to Enlarge:
1081

Police told the BBC that a car filled with explosives rammed a bus carrying the troops to the city of Srinagar.

Pakistan-based Islamist group Jaish-e Mohammad said it was behind the attack.

It is the deadliest militant attack on Indian forces in Kashmir since the insurgency against Indian rule began in 1989.

Both India and Pakistan claim all of Muslim-majority Kashmir but only control parts of it.

Indian Prime Minister described the attack as "despicable".

What happened?

The blast took place on the heavily guarded Srinagar-Jammu highway about 20km (12 miles) from the main city in Indian-administered Kashmir, Srinagar.

"It's not yet clear how many vehicles were in the convoy. A car overtook the convoy and rammed into a bus with 44 personnel on board," a senior police official told BBC Urdu's Riyaz Masroor.

The official said the death toll might increase because dozens were "critically injured".

The AFP news agency said Jaish-e Mohammad had sent a statement to local media saying it had carried out a suicide bombing.

What's the background?

This latest attack is likely to heighten tensions between the two nuclear-armed neighbours.

Prior to Thursday's bombing, the deadliest attack on Indian security forces in Kashmir this century came in 2002, when militants killed at least 31 people at an army base in Kaluchak near Jammu, most of them civilians and relatives of soldiers.

At least 19 Indian soldiers were killed when militants stormed a base in Uri in 2016. Delhi blamed that attack on the Pakistani state, which denied any involvement.

The latest attack also follows a spike in violence in Kashmir that came about after Indian forces killed a popular militant, 22-year-old Burhan Wani, in 2016.

More than 500 people were killed in 2018 - including civilians, security forces and militants - the highest such toll in a decade.

Bashir Manzar, a journalist based in Indian-administered Kashmir, said the bombing would boost the morale of militants and contradicted claims the situation in Kashmir is being brought under control.

"Over the past few months, political leaders in Srinagar and Delhi have made tall claims about how the situation in Kashmir has been normalised and hundreds of militants, including top leaders, had been killed," he told the BBC.

"They claimed that militant groups were on the defensive and fewer people were joining their ranks."

The two countries have fought three wars and a limited conflict since independence from Britain in 1947 - all but one were over Kashmir.

Who are Jaish-e-Mohammad?

Started by cleric Maulana Masood Azhar in 2000, the group has been blamed for attacks on Indian soil in the past, including one in 2001 on the parliament in Delhi which took the nuclear-armed rivals to the brink of war.

It is also said to have introduced suicide bombings in Kashmir, with the first such attack taking place in 2000.

It has been designated a "terrorist" organisation by India, the UK, US and UN and has been banned in Pakistan since 2002.

However Maulana Masood Azhar remains at large and is reportedly based in the Bahawalpur area in Pakistan's Punjab province.

India has often demanded Maulana Masood Azhar's extradition from Pakistan but Islamabad has refused, citing a lack of proof.

Link to Full Article - Links to More Details:
https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-47240660
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Re: Kashmir still struggling for independence

PostAuthor: Anthea » Wed Feb 27, 2019 9:42 pm

India demands Pakistan release
pilot as Kashmir crisis intensifies


India has demanded the release of a fighter pilot shot down by Pakistan warplanes in a major escalation between the two nuclear powers over Kashmir

Video showing the pilot - blindfolded and with blood on his face - was shared by Pakistan's information ministry.

India described the images as a "vulgar display of an injured personnel".

Wednesday's aerial attacks across the Line of Control (LoC) dividing Indian and Pakistani territory in Kashmir are the first since a war in 1971.

The incident, in which Pakistan said it had shot down two military jets, has escalated tensions between the two nations, both of whom claim all of Kashmir, but control only parts of it.

It comes a day after India struck what it said was a militant camp in Pakistan in retaliation for a suicide bombing that killed at least 40 Indian troops in Kashmir.

A Pakistan-based group said it carried out the attack - the deadliest to take place during a three-decade insurgency against Indian rule in Kashmir.

What happened to the pilot?

The Indian Air Force pilot, identified as Wing Commander Abhinandan, had been reported "missing in action" by Indian officials.

Images then circulated of his capture, which were both condemned for what appeared to be a physical attack at the hands of residents in Pakistan-controlled Kashmir, and praised for the actions of the Pakistani soldiers who intervened to create a barrier.

Pakistan's information ministry published - but subsequently deleted - a video purporting to show the blindfolded pilot, who could be heard requesting water, after he had been captured.

In later footage, Wing Commander Abhinandan could be seen sipping tea from a cup without a blindfold and appeared to have been cleaned up.

He answered a number of questions including his name, military position and that he was from "down south", before refusing to share any details when asked about his mission: "I'm not supposed to tell you that."

Pakistan's military spokesman Maj Gen Asif Ghafoor said the pilot was being "treated as per norms of military ethics".

What were the air strikes about?

Maj Gen Ghafoor said that Pakistan fighter jets had carried out "strikes" - exactly what they did remains unclear - in Indian-administered Kashmir on Wednesday.

Two Indian air force jets then responded, crossing the de facto border that divides Kashmir. "Our jets were ready and we shot both of them down," he said.

He added that one Indian pilot was in the custody of the Pakistani army. Officials had previously said two pilots had been captured and one had been taken to hospital.

No explanation has been given as to why the numbers have changed.

Pakistan's information ministry also tweeted what it said was footage of one of the downed Indian jets.

Link to Article - Photos - Videos:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-47393454

Maj Gen Ghafoor said jets had "engaged" six targets in Indian territory but then carried out air strikes on "open ground".

"We don't want to go on the path of war," he said.

India's Ministry of External Affairs spokesman Raveesh Kumar acknowledged the loss of a MiG-21 fighter jet and its pilot.

He also said that an Indian plane had shot down a Pakistani fiMaj Gen Ghafoor said jets had "engaged" six targets in Indian territory but then carried out air strikes on "open ground".

"We don't want to go on the path of war," he said.

India's Ministry of External Affairs spokesman Raveesh Kumar acknowledged the loss of a MiG-21 fighter jet and its pilot.

He also said that an Indian plane had shot down a Pakistani fighter jet, and Indian ground forces observed it falling on the Pakistani side of the LoC. Pakistan denied any of its jets had been hit.
What have India and Pakistan said?

Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan said in a televised address that the two sides could not afford a miscalculation "given the weapons we have".

"We should sit down and talk," he said. ghter jet, and Indian ground forces observed it falling on the Pakistani side of the LoC. Pakistan denied any of its jets had been hit.
What have India and Pakistan said?

Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan said in a televised address that the two sides could not afford a miscalculation "given the weapons we have".

"We should sit down and talk," he said.

"If we let it happen, it will remain neither in my nor Narendra Modi's control.

"Our action is just to let them know that just like they intruded into our territory, we are also capable of going into their territory," he added.

Mr Modi has yet to comment but was meeting top security and intelligence officials to discuss the situation, reports in India said.

Indian Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj said her country would act "with responsibility and restraint".

"India does not wish to see further escalation of the situation," she said, speaking from a meeting with Russian and Chinese foreign ministers in China.
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Re: Kashmir still struggling for independence

PostAuthor: Anthea » Fri Mar 01, 2019 12:11 am

Tension at boiling point despite
Khan's pledge to return captured pilot


TENSIONS remain high in Kashmir with Indian military officials refusing to confirm they would de-escalate a conflict with Pakistan despite the planned return of a captured pilot and troops continuing to mass at the border

The airman, identified as Wing Commander Abhinandan Varthaman, became the human face of the flare-up over the contested region of Kashmir following the release of videos showing him being captured and later held in custody. Pakistan's Prime Minister Imran Khan said the pilot would be released tomorrow despite exchanges of fire which saw four Pakistani civilians killed by India shooting across the disputed border in Kashmir.

A rally in Pakistan featured protesters waving their country's flag and telling their military: “Move forward, the nation is with you.”

But Mr Khan said: "As a peace gesture we will be releasing him tomorrow.”

Indian military officials said they welcomed Pakistan's planned return of the pilot but pointedly ignored questions about de-escalating the conflict.

Air Vice Marshal RGK Kapoor said: "We are happy our pilot is being released.”

Some Indian politicians have also called for more aggression including “secret missions” to target suspected terrorists in Pakistan.

The EU, US, China and other powers have urged restraint from the two nuclear powers as tensions escalated following a suicide car bombing that killed at least 40 Indian paramilitary police in Indian-controlled Kashmir on February 14.

The Muslim-majority Himalayan region has been at the heart of more than 70 years of animosity, since the partition of the British colony of India into the separate countries of Muslim Pakistan and majority Hindu India.

It is divided between India, which rules the Kashmir Valley and the Hindu-dominated region around Jammu city, Pakistan, which controls a wedge of territory in the west, and China, which holds a thinly populated high-altitude area in the north.

On Tuesday, India said it hit a training camp for a Pakistan-based group who claimed responsibility for the suicide attack, and a senior government source told reporters that 300 militants had been killed.

Pakistan denies this, saying the attack was a failure and no one died, with bombs dropped on a largely empty hillside. It denies any militant camp was in the area.

Local people said they had seen no sign of major casualties or significant damage, with only one man known to have been slightly hurt by the bombs.

Asked about the damage caused by Indian warplanes in Tuesday's air strike, Mr Kapoor said it was premature to provide details about casualties.

But they said they had "credible" evidence of the damage inflicted on the camp by the air strikes.

He said: “Whatever we intended to destroy, we did.”

https://www.express.co.uk/news/world/10 ... imran-khan
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Re: Kashmir still struggling for independence

PostAuthor: Anthea » Wed Mar 13, 2019 10:49 am

Talk to Pakistan, former Modi ally
urges India amid Kashmir tension

By Fayaz Bukhari,Reuters

India should talk to Pakistan and separatists in Kashmir to defuse tension arising from a suicide attack on an Indian paramilitary convoy that was claimed by Pakistan-based militants, a former chief minister of the state said

Mehbooba Mufti, who was chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir from early 2014 to June last year when Prime Minister Narendra Modi's Hindu nationalist party withdrew support for her regional party, said an ongoing crackdown on militants and those supporting secession could further alienate the people.

India has vowed to kill all the militants in the country's only Muslim-majority state if they do not give up arms, after a 20-year-old local man killed 40 paramilitary troopers in a suicide attack last month. Indian security forces have killed 18 militants in Kashmir since then, the army said on Monday.

The attack nearly led to another war between arch-rival India and Pakistan, both of which claim the Himalayan region in full but rule in part.

"I strongly feel that there has to be a dialogue process internally as well as externally, with Pakistan," Mufti said in an interview on Friday. "The situation is going to get worse if some kind of political process is not initiated on the ground now."

Indian officials have repeatedly ruled out talks with Pakistan unless it acts against militant groups based there. India says its warplanes late last month bombed a militant camp in Pakistan, which responded with an aerial attack the next day.

U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo met in Washington with Indian Foreign Secretary Vijay Gokhale and told him the United States stands with India against terrorism.

"Secretary Pompeo and Foreign Secretary Gokhale discussed the importance of bringing those responsible for the attack to justice and the urgency of Pakistan taking meaningful action against terrorist groups operating on its soil," the State Department said in a statement.

Gokhale said on the day of the strike that it had killed many Jaish-e-Mohammed "terrorists". Pakistan said no one was killed.

Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan, who has sought to speak with Modi amid the hostility, said no militant group would be allowed to operate from his country to carry out attacks abroad, days after his government announced a sweeping crackdown against Islamist militant organizations.

"This confrontational attitude - no talks, no discussion -has an impact," Mufti said. "Whatever relationship we have with Pakistan, it has a direct impact on Jammu and Kashmir and we are the worst sufferers of this animosity."

Indian authorities have arrested many separatist leaders in Kashmir in the past few weeks, and the chief of Modi's Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) said recently that the government had made it clear to them that "if they want to live in India, they will have to speak the language of India, not Pakistan's".

Mufti, whose father was also a chief minister of Jammu and Kashmir, said the tough stance by India would only lead to "some calm on the surface". India killed 248 militants in Kashmir in 2018 - the highest in a decade.

"Once you start choking the space for dissent in a democracy, people feel pushed to the wall and then it leads to further dissent and alienation," she said.

Mufti said India's general election - starting April 11 and whose results will be declared on May 23 - could delay the process of any inter-party talks on Kashmir.

'ELIMINATING MILITANTS'

Lieutenant-General Kanwal Jeet Singh Dhillon, India's top military commander in Kashmir, said on Monday that security forces had killed 10 local and eight foreign militants in the region in the past three weeks.

He said most of the dead were from Jaish-e-Mohammed, which claimed responsibility for the attack on the paramilitary convoy in the district of Pulwama on Feb. 14.

"Our main emphasis after the convoy attack was to eliminate the JeM leadership and we have been successful in that," he told a press conference in Srinagar, the summer capital of the state.

"We have reasonably succeeded in eliminating JeM militants so that a Pulwama-type attack does not take place."

https://news.yahoo.com/modis-former-all ... 26571.html
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